Overview of Foreign Currency Translation under ASC 830

Overview of Foreign Currency Translation under ASC 830

Foreign currency accounting under ASC 830 has received minimal updates from the old FAS 52 days, but it continues to be an area that causes confusion. It is a topic that we continue to receive training requests for, especially since foreign currency volatility has been a concern in the markets for quite some time now – and doesn’t seem to be one that will be going away any time soon.

How does foreign currency volatility impact companies? Well, a strong dollar makes a U.S.-based company’s products and services more expensive compared to those of a foreign competitor, resulting in a loss of profit. And, if companies are operating in foreign countries and are paid in that foreign currency, then when those earnings are converted back to U.S dollars, the earnings are also less.

But, there is more to the story, stemming from the accounting for foreign currency under U.S. GAAP – namely, transaction and translation effects – resulting in the recording of foreign currency gains or losses. To understand the accounting behind currency effects, we need to look to ASC Topic 830 (or, as many us still refer to it as, the old FAS 52), Foreign Currency Matters.

In this post, we provided an overview of the framework for application of the foreign currency accounting guidance.

It is Step 4, Measure Foreign Currency Transactions, and Step 5, Translate Financial Statements of Foreign Entities, that I want highlight. It is important to understand the distinction, as there are different accounting impacts from the remeasurement process of certain foreign currency transactions versus the foreign currency translation of an entity’s financial statements to the reporting currency.

Remeasurement has an earnings impact, whereas translation impacts get recorded to equity. Let’s first take a look at remeasurement, as that process needs to take place prior to translation into the reporting currency if an entity’s books are not maintained in its functional currency.



Remeasurement is the process of “remeasuring” or converting financial statement amounts that are denominated in another currency to the entity’s functional currency. According to the guidance, “the remeasurement process is intended to produce the same results as if the entity’s books of record had been maintained in the functional currency.” So, at each balance sheet date, as exchange rates between the functional currency and the currency in which monetary assets and liabilities are denominated fluctuate, the amount of functional currency cash flows expected upon settlement of those transactions change. And, that change in expected currency cash flows is required to be recorded as foreign currency transaction gains or losses that should be reflected in net income for the period in which the exchange rate changes.




Once an entity has completed the remeasurement process, translation of the financial statements into the reporting currency is required if the functional currency is different from the reporting currency. In other words, translation is necessary for the purposes of preparing consolidated financial statements when an entity’s functional currency is different from its parent.

ASC Topic 830 requires that the current rate method be used in the translation process. Under the current rate method:

  • Assets and liabilities should be translated using the exchange rate at the balance sheet date
  • Revenues, expenses, gains and losses should be translated using the exchange rate at the dates on which those elements are recognized

Literal application of the guidance may be burdensome and not always practical, as there could be numerous revenue, expense, gain or loss items that need to be translated. The FASB recognized this and permits the use of weighted average exchange rates.

The guidance does not specify the exchange rate to be used to translate a foreign entity’s capital accounts. However, in order for appropriate elimination of capital accounts in consolidation to happen, historical exchange rates should be used.

The adjustments resulting from the translation process are reported in other comprehensive income. The cumulative foreign currency translation adjustments are only reclassified to net income when the gains or losses are realized upon sale or upon complete (or substantially complete) liquidation in the foreign entity. These translation adjustments impact the entity’s net assets and the parent’s net investment in the entity.

Before we close out this discussion, I want to stress that a critical step in the process, which I did not discuss above, is identification or determination of the functional currency of an entity. It is important because the translation reporting requirements in ASC Topic 830 are based on the functional currency. Take a look at the brief video below for a refresher on functional currency:

In Closing

We can now see that foreign currency volatility can impact both net income and equity of an entity. Foreign currency translation gains or losses are recorded in other comprehensive income (a separate component of stockholder’s equity), while remeasurement or transaction gains or losses are recorded in current net income.

As uncertainty continues across the globe related to monetary policy, political environments, and economic and national stability, companies will need to proactively manage their foreign currency translation risk exposures. The main tool used to manage this risk is the use of derivatives. Because derivatives and hedging is a vast topic, we’ll save further discussion of that topic for a future post! For more information, check out our foreign currency matters topic page.

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This post is published to spread the love of GAAP and provided for informational purposes only. Although we are CPAs and have made every effort to ensure the factual accuracy of the post as of the date it was published, we are not responsible for your ultimate compliance with accounting or auditing standards and you agree not to hold us responsible for such. In addition, we take no responsibility for updating old posts, but may do so from time to time.

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Comments (9)

  1. Patricia Pruitt:
    Jun 02, 2017 at 05:33 PM

    USD is functional currency for Rotor

  2. Mike Walworth, CPA:
    Jun 05, 2017 at 09:04 AM

    No. In this case Copter (which is the immediate parent of Rotor), not Chopper, would be considered the “parent”. Therefore, the functional currency of Rotor would be Copter’s functional currency, the Australian dollar (AUS).

    ASC 830-10-55-5 (f) (2) The parent’s currency generally would be the functional currency if the foreign entity is a device or shell corporation for holding investments, obligations, intangible assets, etc., that could readily be carried on the parent’s or an affiliate’s books.

    It should be noted that, based on this fact pattern, there should also be an evaluation of this relationship with consolidation to determine if Rotor is a variable interest entity (VIE), which could change the answer depending on which entity is the primary beneficiary.

  3. lad:
    Mar 28, 2020 at 04:11 PM

    It should be noted that, based on this fact pattern, there should also be an evaluation of this relationship with consolidation to determine if Rotor is a variable interest entity (VIE), which could change the answer depending on which entity is the primary beneficiary.

  4. Moustafa:
    Nov 02, 2021 at 07:09 AM

    based on the above case has given, the functional currency here supposedly Aus $.

  5. Pastora Braghini:
    Dec 21, 2021 at 09:46 AM

    I want to ask the date of the issuance of the standard ASC 830. Thanks

  6. Mike Walworth, CPA:
    Jan 10, 2022 at 12:07 PM

    ASC 830 (FASB Codification Topic) is not a standard, but rather where all the previous standards dealing with foreign currency have been "codified" into a single topic. For example FASB Statement No. 52 "Foreign Currency Translation" (FAS 52) was issued in December 1981 and its guidance is still applicable (albeit changed by subsequent Standards and ASUs).

  7. Sita:
    Apr 20, 2022 at 11:17 PM

    In the case of Foreign exchange conversion, US GAAP obliges to apply which organization source of FX rate conversion for bookkeeping? Such as converting from EUR to USD, for both Accounting and Tax purposes.

  8. Jack:
    Feb 22, 2023 at 02:51 PM

    As a USD reporting company with no foreign operations, if we originated a foreign currency loan and executed forward foreign currency economic hedge. Do we translate daily translation of price changes into USD? ASC Topic 830, is there another GAAP guidance for daily USD currency translation? Thanks! Jack

  9. Mike Walworth, CPA:
    Feb 22, 2023 at 04:22 PM

    Jack, the proper accounting guidance is ASC 830, but what you are describing are foreign currency transactions (not a translations like when we are consolidated a subsidiary whose financial statements are in a foreign currency). For FX transactions, monetary assets or liabilities (in your case it is the loan the FX forward) are remeasured, with FX gains/losses reported in the income statement. See Issue #2 on our FX topic page here:

    If you need additional help regarding accounting for FX transactions/translations, check out our online, CPE-eligible eLearning course here:

    Hope it helps! Mike

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